F-Gas regulation

Europe commits to ambitious HFC phase-down

The EU Parliament has voted to acknowledge revisions to the F-gas regulation that will consequence in a steeper phase-down of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) on the EU current market from 2039 onwards, with a full HFC production and use period-out by 2050. This aligns with the EU’s 2050 climate neutrality intention.

“To promote the uptake of climate-welcoming solutions and to give certainty for individuals and traders, MEPs (customers of the European Parliament) want to bolster the necessities that govern the putting on the EU single market place of merchandise containing F-gases,” suggests the European Parliament.

“The report consists of specific phase-out dates for the use of F-gases in sectors the place it is technologically and economically feasible to switch to choices, these kinds of as refrigeration, air conditioning, heat pumps and electrical switchgear.”

MEPs also supported much better policing by permitting customs authorities to seize and confiscate F-gases imported or exported in violation of the regulations.

“F-gases are not well recognized, but have main implications for our weather, as they are very potent greenhouse gases,” suggests Rapporteur Bas Eickhout. “In most situations, natural possibilities are easily offered. That’s why we voted for an formidable placement to fully period out F-gases by 2050 and in most sectors now by the end of this 10 years. We are offering clarity to the sector and a sign to devote in alternate options. Many European corporations are currently at the forefront of this growth and will advantage from it, mainly because of their marketplace situation and export alternatives.”

To browse to the entire proposal submitted to the EU Parliament, click here.

Resource connection

Scientists back hydrocarbon heat pumps

As the discussion over the revisions to the F-gasoline regulation rumbles on, a group of more than 40 researchers from 24 distinct universities and investigation institutes in Europe have signed a situation paper supporting the use of hydrocarbons as refrigerants in warmth pumps.

The researchers argue that hydrocarbons these as propane and isobutane are just as excellent or greater refrigerants than artificial types. On the other hand, because these fluids are more flammable than the artificial fluids, unique safety safeguards have to be viewed as in the style and design, through services, and in the factories where the warmth pumps are produced.

In fact, many stakeholders have observed that although the technological innovation and current market for hydrocarbon-based air-to-water warmth pumps is pretty perfectly created, the similar is not true for air-to-air warmth pumps, such as splits and VRF units.

Björn Palm is a professor in the division of utilized thermodynamics and refrigeration at the KTH Royal Institute of Technological know-how, and one particular of the signatories of the paper. As mentioned in the document, he thinks a for a longer time transition time period may well be necessary for air-to-air programs.

“This is significantly hard for multi-split devices where the refrigerant rates can be pretty significant,” he states. “I do not see a long term for multi-break up units employing any sort of flammable refrigerant. As a substitute, I count on to see hydronic devices made use of for distributing heating or cooling within a building.”

As for smaller split devices, Palm states it could be attainable to minimize the cost to acceptable limitations.

“There is a exploration venture ongoing here in Stockholm with the intention of demonstrating a split system with less than 150g of propane,” he says. “This involves novel technical remedies for the warmth exchangers, the compressor, and for the expansion product. I also see a risk for other specialized methods, such as speedy-closing valves restricting the releasable demand in circumstance of leakage.

“We are now starting off up an IEA HPT Annex dedicated to safety of flammable refrigerants, and we hope for massive participation from international locations all more than the world. There are lots of tips about how to maximize the security, but they have to have to be investigated and verified ahead of the polices can be tailored.”

In conditions of how to most effective facilitate a transition away from artificial refrigerants, Palm expects exponential expansion in the need for warmth pumps in Europe in the coming years thanks to the embargo on gasoline imports from Russia.

“My knowledge is that the manufacturers have currently understood this enlargement can not be based mostly on the use of synthetic refrigerants,” he says. “But the industry desires assistance in the changeover, and the finest way is to make sure that there is enough governing administration funding for exploration in this space.”

Palm factors to the German government’s €7 million (AUD$11.4 million) grant for producing propane heat pumps to Fraunhofer ISE.

“Another fascinating piece of news indicating the course for the long term is that Rheinmetal received a €770 million (AUD$1,250 million) contract for propane compressors primarily based on technology from the automotive field.

The posture paper has been despatched to users of the European Parliament’s Committee on Surroundings, Public Health and fitness and Food items Protection (ENVI), and to all Swedish EU MPs as an enter in advance of the conclusion on the F-gasoline regulation, which is to be taken by the parliament by the end of March.

Image courtesy of KTH.

Resource connection

The EU phase-down plan – brave or foolhardy?

At the end of February, the European Parliament’s Committee on the Surroundings, Community Overall health and Food items Basic safety (ENVI) agreed to main amendments to the F-gasoline regulation – the EU legislation that controls emissions from fluorinated greenhouse gases.

If the adjustments are confirmed by the European Parliament, it will proficiently see a period-out of HFC refrigerants in some important HVAC&R machines courses just before 2030. As could be expected, this has provoked potent and usually differing responses from stakeholders throughout Europe.

But what is the significance of the revision for individuals of us in the rest of the entire world? We questioned two gurus for their perspectives.

Europe’s large guess

All agree that the timetable is bold, but is it real looking?

According to Refrigerants Australia Executive Director Greg Picker, this is the $64 million question.

“European regulators have clearly signalled that they are trying to push the market to acquire items in a new way,” he suggests. “But no 1 is aware, even the regulators, no matter if or not it is achievable to do this and do it safely and competently.”

Picker factors out that a quantity of European sector associations have flagged what they see as a genuine chance, with possible destructive effects.

“Europe has targets for massive increases in heat pumps, like 30 million a 12 months by the finish of the ten years,” he states. “That’s a huge sum of equipment that’s received to be manufactured, and generated – and including redesign to that obstacle as nicely genuinely tends to make the activity overwhelming.

“Some of it will be high-quality to use purely natural refrigerants, these types of as standalone incredibly hot h2o systems. But for other air-to-air-type heating apps, in which you have split techniques and the like, factors get trickier. Is there heading to be sufficiency of supply to help that to take place? No 1 is familiar with. And with every little thing heading on with Russia and the changeover absent from gas, it is a major concern for Europe.

“Fundamentally, no matter whether it is likely to function or not is a guess.”

Picker also believes that though Europe is in a place to make such a guess, that is not the case for other international locations and locations.

“Europe is massive ample to transform the sector, if it is probable to do so,” he says. “A place like Australia isn’t. We represent .5 for every cent of the global market, so no a person is likely to develop products particularly for us.

“What’s far more, even if goods are out there in Europe in this timeframe, there is no undoubtedly about the value or availability listed here. As individuals are searching at propane split process air conditioners there are probably to be transportation issues, schooling and licensing concerns, there are set up difficulties. There could have to be secondary loop systems. So there’s a complete vary of difficulties that we have to see how they engage in out, what the implications will be on cost, power efficiency, safety and what is feasible.

“I’m careful due to the fact we have to recognise that there is a stability below. Certain, we can develop a thing that has possibly a decrease degree of local weather impact, but it has to be at a acceptable price and with security. If there are better points we can do in other sectors that aren’t as expensive, we should possibly do people 1st.

“That is why a state like Australia or New Zealand must have distinct coverage methods than an overall economy like Europe or the US, where by it is a great deal even bigger and can generate the marketplace.”

Picker also flags considerations with the Europe regulator’s seeming choice for a particular refrigerant.

“When you discuss to the European regulator, they say very constructive matters about hydrocarbons. I would contend that it’s not a regulator’s career to select the resolution. It’s one thing to say, ‘This is the functionality we want if it is possible’, but they shouldn’t tell market how to achieve that.

“And it is value pointing out that because the European method is so massive and difficult, that consultation with business about what is feasible takes place quite late in the process. So the European Fee is truly reliant on a little selection of consultants’ reviews. From my viewpoint, that would make it a weaker method, due to the fact the governing administration is not receiving the profit of a complete assortment of tips, and I think that will make it difficult to develop policy.”

One more stage that Picker claims is normally shed in the combine, is that the policies can only be enforced in international locations the place the regional protection codes enable. Some European jurisdictions, for case in point, might not allow for big demand sizes for flammable refrigerants in selected purposes.

But despite the opportunity risks in the method, Picker states that it could be effective for other jurisdictions, this sort of asAustralia.

“We’re in a good situation,” he says, “because if all those technologies are able to be deployed and they are price-effective and protected, then they’ll be profitable in our market way too. If they are not, luckily we won’t have to pay the cost of terrible policy and regulation.

“Europe is boldly foremost,” he states. “We’ll see if they’re brave or foolhardy over the up coming seven or 8 decades.”

Technically feasible and cost-productive

Clare Perry is Local climate Marketing campaign Chief at the Environmental Investigation Company – an intercontinental NGO that investigates and campaigns against environmental criminal offense and abuse – is extra philosophical about the proposed revisions.

“The timeframes have been researched and proposed by the European Commission, and are regarded as technically feasible and price tag-efficient,” she states.

“Moreover, the proposal involves safety valves in situation added time is essential to fully implement bans. Of system, nothing is formally adopted at this phase, and we have to wait for the European Parliament and council to negotiate the closing model.”

Perry details out that the ENVI Committee of the European Parliament a short while ago agreed quite a few measures to make sure compatibility with increased warmth pump deployment beneath the EU’s REPowerEU System. These consist of added time for employing bans, allowing the European Fee adaptability to reply to any unforeseen current market disruptions, and money assistance towards deployment of warmth pumps relying on organic refrigerants and education of installers.

And in accordance to Perry, Europe’s very clear signal to the HVAC&R market is presently remaining heeded.

“In Europe, companies seem to be to be using it seriously,” she claims, “especially in hydronic heat pumps, with some major investments in new factories, these types of as Viessmann in Poland, and Daikin asserting they will start a propane monobloc this year. Based mostly on what is becoming presented at significant trade demonstrates, suppliers are significantly mindful that organic refrigerants are the only practical preference, specially specified the developing worry more than PFAS contamination.”

Studies rising from the ISH trade fair at this time getting put in Nurnberg, Germany, suggest that additional than 35 distinct providers showcased diverse varieties and capacities of warmth pumps that count on organic refrigerants for heating, cooling and domestic scorching drinking water.

“These contain properly-identified organizations these as Bosch, Daikin, Panasonic, Samsung, LG, Mitsubishi, Viessmann, Vaillant, Nibe, Wolf, Midea and Clivet,” claims Perry.

As for how the changes in Europe could affect other jurisdictions, Perry says that will depend on the closing final result of the negotiation.

“But it really should help to promote the world wide market for clean, local climate-helpful and potential-proof cooling,” she states. “We would hope that it would develop momentum for accelerating the world wide phase-down of HFCs under the Montreal Protocol.”

Supply backlink

Europe votes to move away from fluorinated refrigerants

The European Parliament’s Committee on the Environment, General public Wellness and Food items Safety (ENVI) has agreed to amendments to the F-gas regulation that will see bans on fluorinated gases in refrigeration and air conditioning tools around the up coming 5 yrs. It alerts a major shift absent from artificial gases and in the direction of pure choices.

“We are building the prospective customers of phasing out F-gases additional ambitious,” claims Greens/European Totally free Alliance MP Bas Eickhout. “Europe has indicated that we want to be local climate neutral by 2050. Very well, that indicates that F-gases ought to be eradicated. The conclusion-activity is quite obvious to all the marketplaces.

“To pace up the conclusion of F-gases, we are putting bans for particular sectors like refrigeration, like air conditioning, like heat pumps.”

Eickhout notes that the objective is not only to phase out HFCs, but also new-generation refrigerants such as HFOs that crack down to build PFAS.

The bans for fluorinated refrigerants in distinct machines classes are shown in the table under.

Plug-in space, monoblock and other self-contained air conditioning and heat pump machines that comprise F-gases January 1, 2026
One break up systems like set double duct techniques made up of significantly less than 3kg of F-gases January 1, 2027
Break up techniques of a rated capacity of up to and which include 12kW containing F-gases January 1, 2028
Break up devices of a rated ability of far more than 12kW and up to 200kW containing, or whose functioning depends on, fluorinated greenhouse gases with GWP of 750 or far more, other than when essential to fulfill security requirements January 1, 2028
Break up programs of a rated capacity of additional than 200kW made up of F-gases January 1, 2028
Stationary fridges and freezers for industrial use (self-contained tools) January 1, 2024
Any self-contained stationary refrigeration devices that contains F-gases January 1, 2025
Stationary refrigeration devices, that includes F-gases with GWP of 2,500 or additional except equipment meant for software built to neat goods to temperatures beneath -50°C January 1, 2025
Stationary refrigeration tools, that is made up of-gases January 1, 2027

The ENVI Committee report will now go in advance of the total European Parliament.

“That’s what we are placing on the desk,” claims Eickhout, “with a a lot more ambitious plan than what the fee has proposed. Let’s see that the parliament is putting that ambition now also into the negotiations with the council.”

Resource website link

Bans on horizon for common refrigerants

All eyes are on a European proposal to limit for each- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that may perhaps outcome in bans on quite a few greatly applied refrigerants.

Alex Pachai, who chairs the Eurammon specialized committee, the Global Institute of Refrigeration working team on safety, and the industrial heat pump manufacturer’s group at the Danish Heat Pump Association, clarifies the proposal and its potential impacts.

The European Chemical Agency (ECHA) has released a proposal for the regulation of substances that add to the development of for every- and polyfluoroalkyl substances – referred to as PFAS. There are approximately 10,000 different PFAS from quite a few different sources, but all include fluorine molecules of CF2, CF3 or better buildings. The problem with these substances is that no recognised all-natural breakdown paths exist, and the substances are therefore also named “forever chemicals”. Carbon-fluorine bonds are one particular of the strongest in chemistry. They have also been identified to bring about well being complications for humans and animals.

Of program, regulation of fluorinated and chlorinated gases is not new to the industry. The most widely regarded instrument, the Montreal Protocol, controlled substances that contains chlorine that impacted the ozone layer and was signed in 1987.

Even at that time it was now comprehended that the upcoming problem for the sector would be the world-wide warming probable (GWP) of the choice gases. Some corporations targeted on non-fluorinated compounds this kind of as carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3) and hydrocarbons (HCs), when others started off to seem for synthetic compounds. As a outcome, additional than 100 blends of distinctive compositions have emerged in the market place.

In recent years, experiences from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the media have pointed to the discovery of different fluorine compounds in mother nature, for illustration, from ski wax, firefighting foam, and non-adhere pans. This has brought on additional issues about PFAS.

Now, five European nations around the world – Germany and the Netherlands foremost, strongly supported by Norway, Sweden and Denmark – have set ahead a proposal for regulating PFAS beneath the ECHA umbrella. Coming at the same time as the revision of the F-gasoline directive (the European legislation for phasing down superior-GWP HFC refrigerants), this has led to heated debate.

The Greens in the European Parliament have proposed which include PFAS in the up to date F-gasoline regulation. The situation is that the F-gasoline regulation focuses on GWP, when the ECHA focuses on health and basic safety of humans and nature. Placing the two restrictions alongside one another will not be effortless.

What does the PFAS regulation signify for the HVAC&R marketplace?

A number of the additional widely applied factors of blends that will be impacted are:


Some broadly made use of refrigerants, these types of as R32, will not be influenced. But the F-fuel laws is wanting at limiting the GWP at 750, which issues R32.

What is hardly ever mentioned in the warmth of discussions is the update of the ODP (ozone-depleting prospective) regulations, which is seeking at banning substances that contain chlorine. This will also implement to R1233 and R1224.

There are two implementation timeframes: five many years and 12 a long time. The five-12 months timeframe will implement in which solutions are currently in the industry. The 12-12 months timeframe is for the place there are no recognised solutions.

There is a sensible possibility that the proposal will be approved. It states: “Evidence has been cited that techniques making use of alternate options are price-competitive, which matches their emergence in the market in current years.”

Price tag effectiveness is one particular of the drivers for choice of the timeframe. In this author’s humble belief, it can take place somewhat promptly. For instance, 5 many years from the day the method finishes, which means successful in 2030.

What arrives up coming?

A final result is predicted by 2025. The initiative is in line with the EU Environmentally friendly Offer, as promoted by the EU fee.

The proposal will now go to scientific committees and consultations, with the adhering to timetable laid out:

  • Begin of consultation: March 22, 2023
  • Online info session: April 5, 2023
  • Finish of 6 months’ session: September 22, 2023
  • Committees provide views: 2024
  • Conclusion enters into force: 2025
  • Restriction gets to be successful: 2026–27.

Several gurus are already recommending that the field commence adapting to a future devoid of fluorinated substances, for the reason that there are alternate options in the sector. The quicker we start out, the a lot less high-priced it results in being to make the swap. Ready right until 2030 is actively playing a hazardous game.

The media briefing on the proposal to prohibit FPAS chemical compounds the EU is offered on YouTube.

Source website link

Tensions rise over EU HFC phase-down plans

As the European Union considers formidable new targets for phasing down HFC refrigerants, sector is divided about the route forward. Some teams have cautioned regulators from relocating way too speedy, but other individuals imagine the stricter phase-down is both of those achievable and attractive.

What’s on the table?

In April this 12 months, the European Fee proposed two new laws to more tightly handle fluorinated greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances (ODS). It claimed that these modifications represented “a sizeable step to limiting international temperature increase in line with the Paris Agreement”. The F-fuel proposal, as it was known, also supported an EU determination to lower emissions by at the very least 55 for each cent by 2030 and make Europe climate-neutral by 2050.

Some steps, these as cracking down on unlawful investing and improved licensing and instruction, received wide marketplace assist. Some others, nonetheless, elevated eyebrows.

Among the most contentious ended up proposals to introduce stricter limits for the world wide warming prospective (GWP) of refrigerant in stationary split air conditioning and heat pump machines. As of 2027, systems with a rated capability up to and including 12kW containing refrigerant of 150 GWP or more would be banned. The existing artificial refrigerant of preference for split programs is R32, with a GWP of 675. Devices increased than 12kW containing refrigerant with a GWP of 750 or more would also be banned.

“Unrealistic” timeframe

The European Partnership for Strength and the Ecosystem (EPEE) has warned that the strategy, significantly from supporting the EU’s local weather aims, could undermine them. It notes that a huge roll-out of warmth pumps (such as break up-technique air conditioners) will be demanded to decarbonise buildings around the coming yrs, and that the new procedures would be an obstacle to this work.

“The proposed HFC section-down is in actuality an HFC stage-out by 2027 that would severely jeopardise an accelerated and in depth warmth pump roll out in the EU in the coming a long time.

“According to the proposal, all new machines from 2027 would have to have to instantly use around zero GWP refrigerant, this sort of as hydrocarbons or HFOs, which is an unrealistic timeline both of those in terms of technological improvement and in phrases of the required selection of installers skilled and qualified to take care of the new refrigerants, numerous of which are flammable,” reads the EPEE’s position paper on the proposed revisions to the F-Gas regulation.

The EPEE also suggests that the European Commission’s model will make a quantity of “untransparent and unrealistic” assumptions about the velocity of the refrigerant transition.

“The scope of the proposed bans would be incoherent with the proposed phase down and produce uncertainty as very well as enforcement issues for current market authorities. The distinct bans pertaining to heat pumps would be harmful to the REPowerEU targets and ought to be taken off.

“The F-Gasoline Regulation revision need to strike the stability among minimizing F-gas emissions and acquiring the EU’s local climate and energy objectives.”

Assist for stricter limits

This week, Ambiance unveiled a report titled Accelerating the EU’s Shift To Normal Refrigerant Domestic Heat Pumps, primarily based on a six-month investigation into the domestic warmth pump sector in the EU.

According to Ambiance, the intention of the study was to emphasize the possible effect of the existing HFC period-down –and of an even stricter period-down.

It is vital to notice, nevertheless, that the study excluded air-to-air and hybrid units and reversible versions.

“Following the release of the proposal, trade bodies symbolizing the interest of some of the industry’s incumbents have cautioned towards intrusive coverage motion in this realm, revamping previous fears associated to local climate aims, electrical power effectiveness and security,” reads the report.

“Our sample team interviews with heat pump producers in Europe stage to a expanding existence of primary machines companies (OEMs) throughout Europe with systems functioning with normal refrigerants in their portfolio. These corporations are diverse in size and their commitments to phasing down fluorinated gases. Corporations that have previously noticeably detached them selves from fluorinated performing fluids noted assurance in their means to promptly scale up creation and reconvert aged know-how manufacturing lines pushed by the correct policy framework. Not only are decarbonisation plan attempts noticed as paving the way for the deployment of heat pumps, but also laws affecting fluorinated greenhouse gases are held in superior regard for analyzing the route of vacation.”

Ambiance recently shared conclusions from the report throughout a livestreamed webinar. To entry the webinar, simply click here.

Image courtesy of UNEP OzonAction.

Resource website link

EIA urges Europe to go further on proposed F-Gas HFC restriction changes

The European Commission is experiencing phone calls to rethink proposed timelines to conclusion the use of HFCs for heating and cooling with campaign groups and marketplace bodies split on the most effective way forward

The Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) campaign group has stated the European Commission’s proposed amendments to F-Fuel laws do not go much plenty of to close a reliance on HFC-dependent refrigeration.

The EIA was responding to the publication of new proposals from the commission before this thirty day period that goal to speed up an previously agreed section down of HFC use from 2024. This phasedown is meant to lessen use of these gasses to 2.4 for every cent of a 2015 baseline in 26 years.

These proposed amendments have proved controversial to organisations and bodies symbolizing the European HVACR sector that have argued from any drastic amendments to F-Gas targets established out for the recent decade in particular.

Nevertheless, the EIA has argued that the amendments, which are however to be accepted, fail to established out bans for refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump methods that use HFC refrigeration. It cited European Fee research that mentioned that a array of NGOs have argued that this sort of bans must have been now in location above the very last 10 years.

Clare Perry, local climate campaigns leader for the EIAs claimed the proposals, which have been posted extra than 10 yrs soon after the last F-Gasoline review, mirrored a “wealth of skipped opportunities” to ramp up commitments to tackle local climate modify.

She mentioned, “This proposal doesn’t go far enough to do away with the use of HFCs and until it is significantly amended, it will consequence in still a different dropped 10 years of local climate modify action at a time when the entire world can minimum afford to pay for it.”

The EIA stated that the EU has ordinarily led on initiatives to tackle F-Fuel emissions with its intention to phase out use of ozone depleting substances 10 decades forward of other global initiatives.

Ms Perry reported that recent 10 years was now a critical time for action to tackle local climate improve and limit world-wide temperature rises to 1.5 deg C from pre-industrial amounts. There most up-to-date proposals ended up not witnessed as remaining strong enough for the EIA.

She stated, “The Commission’s program lacks conviction. This proposal, along with the current plan to restrict methane emissions, begs the query as to how productive its management really is.”

The EIA has argued that stricter insurance policies all-around phasing out HFC refrigerants would also be crucial to aims set out in the REPowerEU technique that aims to set up 30 million new heat pumps throughout the EU’s member states by 2030. This tactic is component of a reaction to limit reliance on Russian fuel pursuing its invasion of Ukraine.

Ms Perry argued that the ambitions for expanding warmth pump installations should not lead to an improve in HFC use when decreased GWP options were being out there.

She mentioned, “Given this significantly-necessary and overdue roll-out of warmth pumps, it is critical that the revised F-Gasoline Regulation incorporates sturdy steps to make sure these heat pumps do not lock in the use of HFC refrigerants, properly pitting one particular piece of local climate laws versus yet another.

“Climate-welcoming normal refrigerants can include a major proportion of the heat pump industry, so a double local climate earn is doable – if the [European] Parliament and Council have the eyesight to make it take place. Waiting until finally 2027 for bans to take result is not an possibility.”

A range of market bodies representing the HVACR sector have referred to as for the commission’s proposals to be rewritten. These phone calls are centered on fears that the stricter targets getting proposed risk undermining existing business commitments to end a reliance on better GWP refrigerant as part of a gradual change to alternate gas and a lot more productive systems.

Associations also argue that the accelerated agenda for ending HFC use proposed by the European Commission would serve to limit heat pump adoption that is a essential aim of European environmental policy and current tips by the International Panel on Weather Improve (IPCC) to electrify heating and cooling globally.

Source connection