Carrier Adds 515B Lower GWP Refrigerant Option to AquaEdge 19MV Oil-Free Water-Cooled Chiller

March 16, 2023

Carrier has announced the availability of the decreased worldwide warming probable (GWP) 515B refrigerant in its award-profitable AquaEdge® 19MV oil-free drinking water-cooled chiller. Provider is a portion of Carrier Global Company (NYSE: CARR), the primary worldwide supplier of wholesome, safe and sound, sustainable and clever constructing and cold chain solutions.

The compact and multipurpose Provider AquaEdge® 19MV centrifugal chiller targets entire-making electrical power performance, innovatively pushing over and above optimizing IPLV and providing outstanding audio, reliability and flexible operation to assist chilled h2o crops of today and tomorrow.

“The AquaEdge 19MV is top the marketplace in reliability, effectiveness and finest-in-phase efficiency for sustainable setting up programs in its classification,” explained Tom Franaszek, Director, Worldwide Product or service Management, H2o-cooled Chillers, Provider Industrial HVAC. “The AquaEdge 19MV can take full benefit of chilly condenser drinking water, chilled water reset and other strength-preserving practices to even further improve constructing efficiency.”

Initial released in late 2021, the AquaEdge 19MV is able of protecting general performance in significant, serious and unexpected operational and climate situations. Decide on models offer well balanced general performance that is up to 10% greater than ASHRAE 90.1 2019 path B at both equally total and component hundreds. Mixed with very low-raise procedure, quick restart instances and minimal sounds concentrations, the AquaEdge19MV is especially properly suited for 24/7 applications such as hospitals and knowledge centers.

“From the commencing, we desired to make it simpler and a lot more economical for specifying engineers, contractors, setting up house owners and facility administrators,” reported Franaszek. “The 19MV’s compact 72 by 80-inch footprint on select designs match by means of double doors with out disassembly. The movable, intelligent handle panel will make it simple to observe and examine operational details, and it can hyperlink to a building automation program for distant accessibility to the chiller’s running facts.”

To lessen unplanned downtime, Carrier’s BluEdge™ provider platform assists continue to keep the 19MV working successfully throughout its lifecycle with proactive methods. By leveraging Carrier’s established EquiDrive™ two-phase back-to-back compressor know-how with magnetic bearings, the AquaEdge 19MV delivers expanded working variety although strengthening chiller power performance and making resiliency.

The AquaEdge 19MV was named the 2022 Commercial Comfort and ease Products of the Yr in the Cooling Devices category by a panel of unbiased engineers selected by the editorial personnel of Engineered Methods magazine. Electricity economical options utilizing decrease GWP refrigerants these as 515B help Carrier’s goal to decrease its customers’ carbon footprint by one gigaton, aspect of its 2030 Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Plans.

To master additional about the AquaEdge 19MV, pay a visit to

About Provider

Started by the inventor of modern air conditioning, Provider is a earth chief in superior-technological innovation heating, air-conditioning and refrigeration alternatives. Carrier professionals give sustainable alternatives, integrating electricity-efficient products, creating controls and strength products and services for household, industrial, retail, transportation and food stuff services consumers. Provider is a component of Carrier International Company, the leading world wide service provider of healthy, protected, sustainable and clever building and chilly chain remedies. For additional facts, take a look at or comply with @Provider on Twitter.

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The EU phase-down plan – brave or foolhardy?

At the end of February, the European Parliament’s Committee on the Surroundings, Community Overall health and Food items Basic safety (ENVI) agreed to main amendments to the F-gasoline regulation – the EU legislation that controls emissions from fluorinated greenhouse gases.

If the adjustments are confirmed by the European Parliament, it will proficiently see a period-out of HFC refrigerants in some important HVAC&R machines courses just before 2030. As could be expected, this has provoked potent and usually differing responses from stakeholders throughout Europe.

But what is the significance of the revision for individuals of us in the rest of the entire world? We questioned two gurus for their perspectives.

Europe’s large guess

All agree that the timetable is bold, but is it real looking?

According to Refrigerants Australia Executive Director Greg Picker, this is the $64 million question.

“European regulators have clearly signalled that they are trying to push the market to acquire items in a new way,” he suggests. “But no 1 is aware, even the regulators, no matter if or not it is achievable to do this and do it safely and competently.”

Picker factors out that a quantity of European sector associations have flagged what they see as a genuine chance, with possible destructive effects.

“Europe has targets for massive increases in heat pumps, like 30 million a 12 months by the finish of the ten years,” he states. “That’s a huge sum of equipment that’s received to be manufactured, and generated – and including redesign to that obstacle as nicely genuinely tends to make the activity overwhelming.

“Some of it will be high-quality to use purely natural refrigerants, these types of as standalone incredibly hot h2o systems. But for other air-to-air-type heating apps, in which you have split techniques and the like, factors get trickier. Is there heading to be sufficiency of supply to help that to take place? No 1 is familiar with. And with every little thing heading on with Russia and the changeover absent from gas, it is a major concern for Europe.

“Fundamentally, no matter whether it is likely to function or not is a guess.”

Picker also believes that though Europe is in a place to make such a guess, that is not the case for other international locations and locations.

“Europe is massive ample to transform the sector, if it is probable to do so,” he says. “A place like Australia isn’t. We represent .5 for every cent of the global market, so no a person is likely to develop products particularly for us.

“What’s far more, even if goods are out there in Europe in this timeframe, there is no undoubtedly about the value or availability listed here. As individuals are searching at propane split process air conditioners there are probably to be transportation issues, schooling and licensing concerns, there are set up difficulties. There could have to be secondary loop systems. So there’s a complete vary of difficulties that we have to see how they engage in out, what the implications will be on cost, power efficiency, safety and what is feasible.

“I’m careful due to the fact we have to recognise that there is a stability below. Certain, we can develop a thing that has possibly a decrease degree of local weather impact, but it has to be at a acceptable price and with security. If there are better points we can do in other sectors that aren’t as expensive, we should possibly do people 1st.

“That is why a state like Australia or New Zealand must have distinct coverage methods than an overall economy like Europe or the US, where by it is a great deal even bigger and can generate the marketplace.”

Picker also flags considerations with the Europe regulator’s seeming choice for a particular refrigerant.

“When you discuss to the European regulator, they say very constructive matters about hydrocarbons. I would contend that it’s not a regulator’s career to select the resolution. It’s one thing to say, ‘This is the functionality we want if it is possible’, but they shouldn’t tell market how to achieve that.

“And it is value pointing out that because the European method is so massive and difficult, that consultation with business about what is feasible takes place quite late in the process. So the European Fee is truly reliant on a little selection of consultants’ reviews. From my viewpoint, that would make it a weaker method, due to the fact the governing administration is not receiving the profit of a complete assortment of tips, and I think that will make it difficult to develop policy.”

One more stage that Picker claims is normally shed in the combine, is that the policies can only be enforced in international locations the place the regional protection codes enable. Some European jurisdictions, for case in point, might not allow for big demand sizes for flammable refrigerants in selected purposes.

But despite the opportunity risks in the method, Picker states that it could be effective for other jurisdictions, this sort of asAustralia.

“We’re in a good situation,” he says, “because if all those technologies are able to be deployed and they are price-effective and protected, then they’ll be profitable in our market way too. If they are not, luckily we won’t have to pay the cost of terrible policy and regulation.

“Europe is boldly foremost,” he states. “We’ll see if they’re brave or foolhardy over the up coming seven or 8 decades.”

Technically feasible and cost-productive

Clare Perry is Local climate Marketing campaign Chief at the Environmental Investigation Company – an intercontinental NGO that investigates and campaigns against environmental criminal offense and abuse – is extra philosophical about the proposed revisions.

“The timeframes have been researched and proposed by the European Commission, and are regarded as technically feasible and price tag-efficient,” she states.

“Moreover, the proposal involves safety valves in situation added time is essential to fully implement bans. Of system, nothing is formally adopted at this phase, and we have to wait for the European Parliament and council to negotiate the closing model.”

Perry details out that the ENVI Committee of the European Parliament a short while ago agreed quite a few measures to make sure compatibility with increased warmth pump deployment beneath the EU’s REPowerEU System. These consist of added time for employing bans, allowing the European Fee adaptability to reply to any unforeseen current market disruptions, and money assistance towards deployment of warmth pumps relying on organic refrigerants and education of installers.

And in accordance to Perry, Europe’s very clear signal to the HVAC&R market is presently remaining heeded.

“In Europe, companies seem to be to be using it seriously,” she claims, “especially in hydronic heat pumps, with some major investments in new factories, these types of as Viessmann in Poland, and Daikin asserting they will start a propane monobloc this year. Based mostly on what is becoming presented at significant trade demonstrates, suppliers are significantly mindful that organic refrigerants are the only practical preference, specially specified the developing worry more than PFAS contamination.”

Studies rising from the ISH trade fair at this time getting put in Nurnberg, Germany, suggest that additional than 35 distinct providers showcased diverse varieties and capacities of warmth pumps that count on organic refrigerants for heating, cooling and domestic scorching drinking water.

“These contain properly-identified organizations these as Bosch, Daikin, Panasonic, Samsung, LG, Mitsubishi, Viessmann, Vaillant, Nibe, Wolf, Midea and Clivet,” claims Perry.

As for how the changes in Europe could affect other jurisdictions, Perry says that will depend on the closing final result of the negotiation.

“But it really should help to promote the world wide market for clean, local climate-helpful and potential-proof cooling,” she states. “We would hope that it would develop momentum for accelerating the world wide phase-down of HFCs under the Montreal Protocol.”

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future:gas roadshow returns to talk refrigerants

Tickets are now on sale for 17 marketplace-supported refrigerant education and learning gatherings aimed at those doing work in the stationary HVAC&R sector: the upcoming:gas roadshow.

“A great deal of change has emerged in the world of refrigerants since the highly thriving potential:gas refrigerant seminar roadshows of 2016a and 2017,” say the organisers. “So it’s time for another.

“Refrigerants are still altering, with some of the improvements talked over in past upcoming:gas seminars taking place more rapidly than expected and some slower. There are also some surprising developments and curveballs in the mix.

“Everyone in the marketplace needs to be mindful of what is occurring in the marketplace, what the laws are and how they could be changing.”

Working as a result of May perhaps, June and July, the 2023 future:gas roadshows will assemble specialist speakers to talk about and clarify the most up-to-date on the restoration and managing of new refrigerants, the rules that will impact every single aspect of the sector, and what this will suggest for the working day-to-day everyday living of people in the business of dealing with refrigerants.

At least 2,000 delegates from the stationary HVAC&R sector are predicted to show up at the 17 situations throughout Australia and New Zealand, as perfectly as Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea.

Tickets to foreseeable future:fuel seminars in Australia and New Zealand are priced at $20, with the aim of producing it inexpensive for specialists to pay back for their personal ticket and for company homeowners to mail a amount of their personnel.

Also to support as many people today as feasible to attend, the seminars will acquire area on weekday evenings for the duration of the winter, beginning at 5pm with complimentary welcome drinks, foods and trade displays.

For a lot more facts and to register, go to the potential:gas web-site.

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Europe votes to move away from fluorinated refrigerants

The European Parliament’s Committee on the Environment, General public Wellness and Food items Safety (ENVI) has agreed to amendments to the F-gas regulation that will see bans on fluorinated gases in refrigeration and air conditioning tools around the up coming 5 yrs. It alerts a major shift absent from artificial gases and in the direction of pure choices.

“We are building the prospective customers of phasing out F-gases additional ambitious,” claims Greens/European Totally free Alliance MP Bas Eickhout. “Europe has indicated that we want to be local climate neutral by 2050. Very well, that indicates that F-gases ought to be eradicated. The conclusion-activity is quite obvious to all the marketplaces.

“To pace up the conclusion of F-gases, we are putting bans for particular sectors like refrigeration, like air conditioning, like heat pumps.”

Eickhout notes that the objective is not only to phase out HFCs, but also new-generation refrigerants such as HFOs that crack down to build PFAS.

The bans for fluorinated refrigerants in distinct machines classes are shown in the table under.

Plug-in space, monoblock and other self-contained air conditioning and heat pump machines that comprise F-gases January 1, 2026
One break up systems like set double duct techniques made up of significantly less than 3kg of F-gases January 1, 2027
Break up techniques of a rated capacity of up to and which include 12kW containing F-gases January 1, 2028
Break up devices of a rated ability of far more than 12kW and up to 200kW containing, or whose functioning depends on, fluorinated greenhouse gases with GWP of 750 or far more, other than when essential to fulfill security requirements January 1, 2028
Break up programs of a rated capacity of additional than 200kW made up of F-gases January 1, 2028
Stationary fridges and freezers for industrial use (self-contained tools) January 1, 2024
Any self-contained stationary refrigeration devices that contains F-gases January 1, 2025
Stationary refrigeration devices, that includes F-gases with GWP of 2,500 or additional except equipment meant for software built to neat goods to temperatures beneath -50°C January 1, 2025
Stationary refrigeration tools, that is made up of-gases January 1, 2027

The ENVI Committee report will now go in advance of the total European Parliament.

“That’s what we are placing on the desk,” claims Eickhout, “with a a lot more ambitious plan than what the fee has proposed. Let’s see that the parliament is putting that ambition now also into the negotiations with the council.”

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Johnson Controls-Hitachi Introduces First Line of Precision Air Conditioners to Use Low-GWP R-32 Refrigerant

March 02, 2023

  • New airCore warmth pump devices are the to start with precision air conditioners in the U.S. to use small-GWP R-32 refrigerant
  • The power-productive airCore line can make it feasible to decarbonize heating and cooling for household and gentle professional purposes
  • Very best-in-class piping size of 245 ft delivers higher software versatility

Johnson Controls-Hitachi has released airCore, the initial line of precision air conditioner (PAC) heat pump methods in the U.S. to use R-32 refrigerant. R-32 is a refrigerant with small international warming likely that provides much less greenhouse fuel emissions than R-410A. Very low-GWP refrigerants such as R-32 lessen the influence of heating and cooling devices on the setting and can meet forthcoming refrigerant restrictions.

The new airCore heat pump systems from Johnson Controls-Hitachi are the initial precision air conditioners in the U.S. to use reduced-GWP R-32 refrigerant.

Many states, these kinds of as California, have currently established laws that will section out the use of large-GWP refrigerants in HVAC machines, and the Environmental Security Agency (EPA) has not long ago proposed regulations that let only refrigerants with a GWP of 700 or decreased to be used in new comfort cooling products commencing January 1, 2025. By making use of lower-GWP R-32, airCore models can comply with regulations prior to they go into impact.

In addition to working with reduced-GWP refrigerant, the airCore line of common outdoor units provide energy productive performance and make it possible for residential and mild commercial programs, such as small marketplaces, dining establishments, salons and professional medical workplaces, to decarbonize their heating and cooling when the electric units are run by renewable electricity. The models may perhaps also qualify for condition rebates and incentives.

The airCore line options market-primary piping lengths of up to 245 feet, which will allow for larger installation flexibility and is particularly useful for developing configurations in coastal regions. With a utmost exterior static stress (ESP) of .8, airCore models can be made use of in parallel with current ducted tools. In structures that use multiple airCore models, the units can be networked and controlled devoid of a bigger constructing administration system via simple link using BACnet or Modbus adaptor.

“The new Johnson Controls-Hitachi line of airCore heat pump devices is transforming the activity for PACs,” mentioned Manuel DelaFuente, vice president and normal manager of Johnson Controls-Hitachi North America. “With minimal-GWP refrigerant, higher vitality performance and for a longer time piping lengths, airCore units can enable far more structures decrease their environmental impact and keep occupants snug in a extra sustainable way.”

The line of airCore warmth pump devices can operate in temperatures as reduced as -13 F, achieving up to 45,000 British thermal models (BTUs). Models characteristics compressor main heating technological innovation with highly developed, multipulse handle that enhances performance in lower-ambient situations and improves startup time as very well as a wise defrost control. This handle screens the amount of ice accumulated on the out of doors device, then clears it to guarantee greatest operational effectiveness. Regular models operate defrost on a timed cycle, which indicates defrost mode can operate unnecessarily and impact unit effectiveness and occupant comfort and ease. The airCore smart defrost manage only operates defrost manner when it senses that ice has collected on the outside device and can find out from prior defrost situations to improve defrost cycle frequency and reduce heating disruption.

The airCore line will come conventional with FrostWash, a self-cleansing know-how that can strengthen indoor air high-quality. As dust, filth and condensate collect on the warmth exchanger, FrostWash freezes the moisture. It then melts and flushes the humidity and trapped contaminants away. Optional accessories, this sort of as human sensor, Wi-Fi adaptor for airCloud House, H-Url adaptor for airCloud Pro, 3rd-celebration thermostat adaptor and low-ambient cooling package for temperatures as lower as -40 F.

About Johnson Controls-Hitachi Air Conditioning:

Johnson Controls-Hitachi Air Conditioning is a worldwide air conditioning producer proven in October 2015 as a joint undertaking amongst Johnson Controls and Hitachi Appliances, Inc. (now Hitachi International Daily life Remedies, Inc.) Around 15,000 employees have provided high-high quality household and commercial products and solutions, companies, and options to our shoppers. We have unveiled the most various HVAC products and solutions in the global sector like ductless options, chillers and household air conditioning solutions that exceed purchaser anticipations at all times.


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Bans on horizon for common refrigerants

All eyes are on a European proposal to limit for each- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that may perhaps outcome in bans on quite a few greatly applied refrigerants.

Alex Pachai, who chairs the Eurammon specialized committee, the Global Institute of Refrigeration working team on safety, and the industrial heat pump manufacturer’s group at the Danish Heat Pump Association, clarifies the proposal and its potential impacts.

The European Chemical Agency (ECHA) has released a proposal for the regulation of substances that add to the development of for every- and polyfluoroalkyl substances – referred to as PFAS. There are approximately 10,000 different PFAS from quite a few different sources, but all include fluorine molecules of CF2, CF3 or better buildings. The problem with these substances is that no recognised all-natural breakdown paths exist, and the substances are therefore also named “forever chemicals”. Carbon-fluorine bonds are one particular of the strongest in chemistry. They have also been identified to bring about well being complications for humans and animals.

Of program, regulation of fluorinated and chlorinated gases is not new to the industry. The most widely regarded instrument, the Montreal Protocol, controlled substances that contains chlorine that impacted the ozone layer and was signed in 1987.

Even at that time it was now comprehended that the upcoming problem for the sector would be the world-wide warming probable (GWP) of the choice gases. Some corporations targeted on non-fluorinated compounds this kind of as carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3) and hydrocarbons (HCs), when others started off to seem for synthetic compounds. As a outcome, additional than 100 blends of distinctive compositions have emerged in the market place.

In recent years, experiences from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the media have pointed to the discovery of different fluorine compounds in mother nature, for illustration, from ski wax, firefighting foam, and non-adhere pans. This has brought on additional issues about PFAS.

Now, five European nations around the world – Germany and the Netherlands foremost, strongly supported by Norway, Sweden and Denmark – have set ahead a proposal for regulating PFAS beneath the ECHA umbrella. Coming at the same time as the revision of the F-gasoline directive (the European legislation for phasing down superior-GWP HFC refrigerants), this has led to heated debate.

The Greens in the European Parliament have proposed which include PFAS in the up to date F-gasoline regulation. The situation is that the F-gasoline regulation focuses on GWP, when the ECHA focuses on health and basic safety of humans and nature. Placing the two restrictions alongside one another will not be effortless.

What does the PFAS regulation signify for the HVAC&R marketplace?

A number of the additional widely applied factors of blends that will be impacted are:


Some broadly made use of refrigerants, these types of as R32, will not be influenced. But the F-fuel laws is wanting at limiting the GWP at 750, which issues R32.

What is hardly ever mentioned in the warmth of discussions is the update of the ODP (ozone-depleting prospective) regulations, which is seeking at banning substances that contain chlorine. This will also implement to R1233 and R1224.

There are two implementation timeframes: five many years and 12 a long time. The five-12 months timeframe will implement in which solutions are currently in the industry. The 12-12 months timeframe is for the place there are no recognised solutions.

There is a sensible possibility that the proposal will be approved. It states: “Evidence has been cited that techniques making use of alternate options are price-competitive, which matches their emergence in the market in current years.”

Price tag effectiveness is one particular of the drivers for choice of the timeframe. In this author’s humble belief, it can take place somewhat promptly. For instance, 5 many years from the day the method finishes, which means successful in 2030.

What arrives up coming?

A final result is predicted by 2025. The initiative is in line with the EU Environmentally friendly Offer, as promoted by the EU fee.

The proposal will now go to scientific committees and consultations, with the adhering to timetable laid out:

  • Begin of consultation: March 22, 2023
  • Online info session: April 5, 2023
  • Finish of 6 months’ session: September 22, 2023
  • Committees provide views: 2024
  • Conclusion enters into force: 2025
  • Restriction gets to be successful: 2026–27.

Several gurus are already recommending that the field commence adapting to a future devoid of fluorinated substances, for the reason that there are alternate options in the sector. The quicker we start out, the a lot less high-priced it results in being to make the swap. Ready right until 2030 is actively playing a hazardous game.

The media briefing on the proposal to prohibit FPAS chemical compounds the EU is offered on YouTube.

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AprilAire Leads Industry Fully Transitioning to Reclaimed Refrigerant in Residential Indoor Air Quality Solutions

December 20, 2022

AprilAire, the leading company of experienced grade Healthier Air methods for properties, nowadays announced it has concluded its transition in advance of program to the unique use of accredited reclaimed refrigerant in its range of healthful indoor air quality options.

The seamless conversion, well in progress of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Regulation Purchase transition date, was built probable by its partnership with Hudson Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: HDSN), a leading supplier of innovative and sustainable refrigerant goods and providers to the Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration industry – and a person of the nation’s biggest refrigerant reclaimers.

“We chose to partner with Hudson Systems due to their proven commitment to sustainability and technical leadership in recovering, reclaiming, and reusing refrigerants to lower waste and greenhouse gas emissions. This is an additional important milestone as we apply impressive methods to make our items more environmentally welcoming,” commented Jimmy Pendley, President of AprilAire.

Brian F. Coleman, President and Main Executive Officer of Hudson Systems, included, “We’re pleased to do the job with AprilAire in their attempts as an early adopter to fulfill the CARB Regulation Buy for Qualified Reclaimed Refrigerant. We feel our partnership with AprilAire is a fantastic illustration of how our mutual focus on sustainability can make a change and established the rate for an full market.”

About AprilAire

AprilAire is on a mission to make residences healthier. We believe that everyone deserves healthy air and visualize a potential with wholesome air in every home. We worth nutritious living, customer motivated innovation, simplicity of style, straight talk and offering true benefits as promised, and most importantly, creating a beneficial big difference in the lives of our consumers, families, and communities. Headquartered in Madison, Wisconsin given that 1954, AprilAire has been creating and providing Healthful Air options to control air purity, humidity, refreshing air supply, radon mitigation, and temperature for all varieties of households, in all environments. The company has an unparalleled track record as the manufacturer of option among tens of thousands of expert contractors and would make a balanced air variation in the lives of the thousands and thousands of households who count on its merchandise each individual working day. To learn how to convert your household into a healthier home with the AprilAire Healthy Air System®, and understand about other alternatives, visit

About Hudson Technologies

Hudson Technologies, Inc. is a main supplier of revolutionary and sustainable refrigerant merchandise and products and services to the Heating, Air flow, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration marketplace. For practically 3 decades, Hudson has demonstrated its determination to its buyers and the atmosphere by getting just one of the initial in the United States and largest refrigerant reclaimers via multimillion greenback investments in the vegetation and highly developed separation technology needed to get better a wide selection of refrigerants and restoring them to Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute normal for reuse as certified EMERALD Refrigerants™. Hudson’s goods and expert services are principally utilized in industrial air conditioning, industrial processing, and refrigeration programs, and consist of refrigerant and industrial fuel gross sales, refrigerant management solutions consisting mainly of reclamation of refrigerants and RefrigerantSide® Products and services performed at a customer’s web site, consisting of program decontamination to take away dampness, oils and other contaminants. Hudson’s SmartEnergy OPS® services is a net-primarily based actual time continual checking company applicable to a facility’s refrigeration units and other electricity devices. Hudson’s Chiller Chemistry® and Chill Smart® companies are also predictive and diagnostic assistance offerings. As a ingredient of Hudson’s products and solutions and companies, Hudson also generates carbon offset initiatives.

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SAMON Introduces New GLACIÄR MIDI Refrigerant Gas Detector

SAMON has launched GLACIAR MIDI, the basically reputable refrigerant gas detector. Created to guard the setting, shield folks, and defend house, GLACIAR MIDI meets the desires of every user via its vary of electronic and analogue interfaces.

SAMON launches GLACIÄR MIDI at Chillventa 2022, Products Image GLACIÄR MIDI

Released at Chillventa in Nuremberg in October, SAMON has documented higher degrees of fascination from each new and existing end users of its refrigerant gasoline detection goods.

GLACIAR MIDI is appropriate for detection of all refrigerant gases, like pure refrigerants this kind of as CO2, propane, and ammonia, as nicely as HFC and HFO refrigerant blends.

A brand-new SAMON application permits very simple configuration and upkeep of detectors applying a Bluetooth interface.  GLACIAR MIDI also consists of an analogue assistance wheel, letting customers to interact with their refrigerant gasoline detector devoid of requiring any unique equipment.

Dzenkis Junuzovic, R&D Director at SAMON, stated, “I am particularly thrilled to unveil GLACIAR MIDI to our buyers. We have poured over 30 years’ experience and knowledge in refrigerant gas detection into this advancement. This is just the to start with in the GLACIAR series, we have even a lot more coming to assistance the refrigeration and air conditioning industries. Look at this place!”

SAMON is headquartered in Vellinge, Sweden, with offices in Spain, France, and the Uk, and is aspect of the Alder Group, focused on sustainability and weather impression.

For a lot more info, please contact:

Flemming Poulsen

Advertising & Written content Coordinator

E: [email protected]

T: +46-40-428154

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Demystifying CO2 Refrigeration – HVAC Insider

September 28, 2022

An introduction to the characteristics, nuances and applications of an emerging natural refrigerant

By Andre Patenaude, Director, Solutions Strategy, Emerson

The use of CO2 as a refrigerant (R-744) in commercial refrigeration is expected to rise significantly in the U.S. over the next several years. With a global warming potential (GWP) of 1 and zero ozone depletion potential (ODP), CO2 is one of several emerging refrigerants capable of enabling food retailers to meet their sustainability goals and comply with environmental regulations.

Although CO2 refrigeration has been a known commodity on the world stage for many decades, many supermarket owners, operators and service technicians in the U.S. have had very little (if any) exposure to it. The characteristics of CO2 refrigeration are quite different from traditional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-based systems, which has created reservations about applying it within U.S. food retail outlets.

Today, as U.S. food retail stakeholders transition away from high-GWP HFC systems, they have many questions about emerging CO2 refrigeration technologies. This article, combined with our CO2 Chats video series, is designed to demystify CO2 refrigeration and provide the basic information needed to help establish a foundational understanding.

Unique properties of R-744

Compared to legacy HFC refrigerants, R-744 has a multitude of distinct thermo-physical properties and performance characteristics.

Low critical point

Among its many distinguishing characteristics, R-744 has a low critical point of 87.8 °F — which from a refrigeration perspective, is a relatively low temperature. When the ambient (outside) temperature rises above approximately 75 °F, system conditions cause the refrigerant to enter the gas cooler as a supercritical fluid (at or above 87.8 °F), where its pressure and temperature relationships can rise and fall independently of each other. R-744 is at saturation when it is below the critical point, which is referred to as subcritical mode; above 87.8 °F, the refrigerant transitions to transcritical mode.

High operating pressures

CO2 system operating pressures are significantly higher than traditional HFC systems (i.e., those using R-404A or R-410A). Although this often gives service technicians pause when they first encounter CO2 transcritical booster systems, understanding where those pressures occur can give them a greater comfort level. As medium-temperature (MT) compressors discharge into a gas cooler on the roof, pressures could reach 1,400 psi on a 95 °F summer day. MT discharge lines are constructed with stainless steel or special ferrous alloy copper to handle these pressures.

Within a facility and/or machine room, a high-pressure expansion valve reduces the refrigerant pressure exiting the gas cooler to around 550 psi and transfers it to a receiver tank, commonly referred to as a flash tank. Liquid refrigerant exits at the bottom of the flash tank via a main liquid line at 40 °F (550 psi) and feeds all the MT evaporators, which operate at about 22 °F (420 psi). It also feeds all the low-temperature (LT) evaporators, which operate near -20 °F, at an even lower pressure of 200 psi. Although system pressures are higher than what most technicians are accustomed to, proper training and tools should mitigate the reservations of CO2’s high pressures.

High triple point

R-744 has a high triple point at which the refrigerant’s gas, liquid and solid states coexist — occurring at
-69.8 °F and 60.4 psi. Although -69.8 °F is well below normal operating ranges, its corresponding saturation pressure is not 60.4 psi. The hyper-reactivity of a CO2 system can cause the pressure to reach 60.4 psi or lower. When this occurs due to improper maintenance, R-744 turns into dry ice, stops the refrigerant flow, and causes a variety of potential problems.

High density

R-744 has other unique performance and operating characteristics that dictate system design strategies. Because it has a higher density than typical HFC refrigerants, CO2 requires the use of smaller compressor displacements — although the motor is sized similarly to carry the workload. CO2’s higher density means that smaller pipe diameters can be used, especially on the suction side of the system. Due to its high pressures, system components must be rated for a higher maximum working pressure.

Servicing best practices

CO2 transcritical booster system installations are expected to increase significantly in the next few years. It’s only a matter of time before technicians will be asked to perform service on them. Technicians should be aware of the following basic best practices when servicing these systems.

Storing CO2

R-744 tank storage and/or refrigerant cylinder best practices are similar to those of legacy HFCs, including stacking procedures, safety precautions and assigning designated storage areas. To handle its high pressures, CO2 tanks are reinforced and weigh significantly more than HFC tanks. Empty CO2 tanks can weigh close to 123 lbs. and can reach nearly 180 lbs. when fully charged. Supermarkets that prefer to have an entire system charge in reserve could potentially require 2,000 lbs. of refrigerant. Storing that amount would require 40 cylinders weighing 7,200 lbs. — or 3.6 tons. Contractors need to understand where to store the reserve refrigerant and if the sheer volume and weight could affect building codes and/or a building’s structural integrity.

Charging a CO2 refrigeration system

When charging a CO2 refrigeration system, the most important consideration a technician should keep in mind is the refrigerant’s triple point pressure (60.4 psi) and how to guard against turning the charge to dry ice. Instead of charging with liquid CO2 when the system is below 60.4 psi, contractors should charge with vapor until the system reaches CO2’s triple point. Failure to do so is likely to result in the formation of dry ice in the charging line, a common (and potentially costly) mistake for those unfamiliar with CO2 installations. Most equipment manufacturers recommend charging the system with vapor until it reaches at least 100 psi. After achieving 100 psi with vapor, which has equalized throughout the entire system, technicians can switch charging with liquid to speed up the process.

Dealing with trapped liquid

Because CO2’s coefficient of expansion (COE) is higher than a typical HFC refrigerant, it has a higher probability of refrigerant pressure increasing rapidly between two valves. If this occurs, the pressure can increase 145 psi for every 1.8 °F increase in temperature. As a result, sections of a system need to be fitted with appropriate check valves or pressure-relief valves for safe system operation and service.

Detecting leaks in CO2 systems

Because R-744 refrigerant is colorless, odorless and heavier than air, it can be difficult for building occupants to detect leaks. CO2 transcritical booster systems must utilize integrated leak detection systems with detection devices mounted 18 inches off the ground. Like HFC systems, it’s important to immediately detect and mitigate CO2 leaks as they occur.

Emerson has designed CO2-specific leak detection technology that quickly can sense the presence of higher levels of CO2 in a machine room or walk-in box. Emerson offers both a stand-alone CO2 leak detection solution as well as devices that can be seamlessly integrated into a building management system (BMS), such as the Lumity™ supervisory control platform.

Safe handling best practices

Technicians should take proper precautions when handling high-pressure CO2 refrigeration systems. Even when a system is shut off, standstill pressures are still likely to remain high and should be handled accordingly. Because it is heavier than air, CO2 can quickly displace O2 when it is released in excessive amounts. Thus, technicians should avoid handling it in confined spaces and ensure they use proper leak detection procedures and equipment. In addition, CO2 vapor temperature at atmospheric pressure is -109.3 °F; technicians should follow proper service procedures and always wear personal protective equipment (PPE) to limit the potential for skin burns. With proper training, tools and equipment design — and when maintained and operated properly — CO2 is a safe and natural refrigerant alternative.

Fundamentals of CO2 system operation

Because of R-744’s many distinguishing performance characteristics, CO2 transcritical booster system design can seem more complex to operate and service. Fortunately, system control technologies have evolved to manage nearly all aspects of operation and make it easy for operators to manage these complexities. Even so, end users and contractors should be aware of the basic principles when operating CO2 transcritical booster systems.

The difference between subcritical and transcritical modes

CO2 transcritical booster systems are designed to transition between subcritical and transcritical modes of operation. When R-744 is at saturation and below the critical point of 87.8 °F, a system operates in subcritical mode. Above this refrigerant temperature, R-744 is no longer at saturation and the system enters transcritical mode. Unlike traditional HFC systems that have much higher critical points, CO2 systems could operate for extended periods while in a transcritical mode in a typical year.

Managing high system pressures

R-744 is a very dynamic refrigerant that reacts quickly to changes in pressures and temperatures. During the commissioning of a CO2 transcritical booster system, it’s important to establish a stable baseline of performance. To achieve this, technicians should focus their efforts on the configurations of the gas cooler, high-pressure valve and flash tank, including:

–          Controlling variable fan speeds

–          Modulating the high-pressure valve

–          Modulating the bypass gas valve

–          Maintaining a consistent flash tank pressure

–          Assuring smooth compressor staging

Since all those aspects are managed by electronic controls, technicians will need to interface with these controls to bring the key system components into equilibrium.

Preserving CO2 system charge during a shutdown

Power outages and system shutdowns can have significant impacts on a CO2 transcritical booster system. In the event of an extended shutdown, CO2 transcritical booster systems are designed with pressure-relief valves in each zone to allow for the safe release of refrigerant. During brief shutdowns, system pressures typically don’t rise quickly enough to cause concern. A system’s existing thermal inertia — from its flash tank, liquid line, MT and LT evaporators — will sustain proper pressures for a significant period of time. The temperatures outside and inside the building, among other factors, are likely to impact how long pressure will be sustained.

Another method for keeping pressures in check and preventing the release of system charge during an extended power outage is through an auxiliary condensing unit powered by a backup generator. The condensing unit typically utilizes a dedicated heat exchanger connected to the system’s flash tank or receiver. When the system is powered down, warm gas from the receiver naturally migrates through the cold heat exchanger, cools the flash tank vapor, condenses it into a liquid, and returns it to the flash tank at a colder temperature and lower saturation pressure. This helps to prevent the loss of refrigerant through pressure-relief valves.

Preventing flooded evaporators during a power outage

CO2 transcritical booster systems are designed with specific strategies to prevent CO2 evaporators from flooding during a power outage. When the power drops in a system using a stepper-motor electronic expansion valve (EEV), the EEV typically will hold its exact position. Accordingly, CO2 transcritical booster systems are often designed to have a solenoid valve at the inlet of the EEV, which can be set to close upon losing power to help prevent flooding of the evaporator. Another strategy that would work is to install a battery backup on the case control to shut off refrigerant flow when necessary.

Systems equipped with pulse-width modulated (PWM) valves — which are in effect high cycle rate solenoid valves — are designed to automatically close to prevent liquid from flooding the evaporator, thereby protecting the compressor when power comes back on. Before the system is up and running again, service contractors should make sure that they clearly understand how the valves in each system will operate and/or close — and to confirm that any floodback mitigation strategies have worked as expected.

Leading CO2 system design strategies

Refrigeration system designers have made tremendous strides in exploiting CO2’s unique properties into sustainable refrigeration architectures. Today, system design strategies have evolved into two primary architectures that differ greatly from traditional HFC-based systems.

CO2 transcritical booster system

CO2 transcritical booster systems are designed so that MT compressors discharge into a gas cooler, typically located on the roof of a facility. With system pressures potentially reaching 1,400 psi on a hot summer day, R-744 must be cooled before it can be condensed. Thus, refrigerant is circulated back into the building through a high-pressure valve, which drops the pressure to a useable state (550 psi) and deposits a refrigerant mixture of vapor and liquid inside the flash tank at 40 °F equivalent saturation.

Next, the system circulates the 40 °F liquid through insulated liquid lines to feed all the MT and LT cases and provide the cooling loads. The MT cases are equipped with an EEV, and the MT suction gas feeds the MT compressors. On the LT side where loads could be -20 °F, the cases are also fitted with an EEV and are supported by a separate set of LT compressors that discharge into the MT suction group.

The system also utilizes a bypass line that’s designed to relieve the pressure on the flash tank. As ambient temperatures rise and fall, flash tank pressures can also fluctuate. Thus, the bypass line helps to release the excess flash tank pressure through a bypass gas valve and stabilize it to approximately 550 psi (pressure may vary based on system design), where it is directed into the MT suction group. In effect, the MT compressors are being fed by three sources:

–          The total heat of rejection from the LT compressors

–          The MT suction from the evaporators

–          The excess flash gas via the bypass line

The system is called a booster system because the LT compressors are not going directly to the gas cooler, like they would on a typical HFC system. Instead, the LT compressors discharge into the MT compressors, thereby allowing the MT compressors to boost the refrigerant to the gas cooler.

CO2 cascade system

A CO2 cascade system offers an alternate architecture for retailers who want to deploy a low-GWP option but may not want a full CO2 transcritical booster system. In a CO2 cascade system, the high (MT) and low (LT) stages are completely independent of each other, except for one heat exchanger that connects them.

Typically, the high stage of a supermarket system would use a lower-GWP, medium-pressure HFC refrigerant, such as R-513A. Not only does it serve the MT loads, but it is also used to condense the CO2 in the low stage. In the low stage, CO2 is discharged, condensed in a condenser, and then recirculated for LT loads. R-744 is a very effective refrigerant for LT loads; and with a GWP of 1, it contributes to a cascade architecture that could meet many retailers’ sustainability objectives.

Leveraging heat reclaim

CO2 systems are excellent candidates for heat reclamation strategies. In fact, most modern CO2 systems utilize some form of heat reclamation — whether it’s for providing heated air, hot water, or even heating slabs beneath freezers. Many retailers are capitalizing on this opportunity to lower their emissions and reliance on fossil fuels. In addition, the liquid quality of R-744 is not affected when head pressures are raised to generate more heating capacity. Instead, the flash tank or receiver is designed to keep refrigerant at a consistent pressure, even while head pressures may fluctuate while operating in transcritical mode.

Optimizing the COP via the high-pressure control

When R-744 exceeds its critical point of 87.8 °F, the refrigerant enters a supercritical phase where the relationship between pressure and temperature becomes uncoupled. To optimize the coefficient of performance (COP) in a CO2 transcritical booster system, we must understand the function of the gas cooler and the characteristics of R-744 as it enters this supercritical zone.

Below the critical point, the gas cooler acts like a condenser. Thus, R-744 exists in a predictable state of saturation — if you know the pressure, you can determine the temperature (and vice versa). In its subcritical state, the high-pressure control algorithm automates system pressures according to a specified sub-cooling setpoint.

Above 87.8 °F, the pressure can change without having an impact on the temperature (and vice versa). System designers can take advantage of this phenomenon when optimizing COP. When operating transcritical mode, the high-pressure control always seeks to maintain an optimal pressure setting for each gas cooler outlet temperature. Today’s sophisticated high-pressure controls are continually adjusting gas cooler outlet pressures in transcritical mode to produce the most optimal BTU/W option.

Maintaining energy efficiencies in warm climates

The energy consumption of a refrigeration system is a key factor when evaluating its total cost of ownership (TCO). For a CO2 transcritical booster system, energy efficiency is dependent on many factors, including:

–          The ambient temperature range

–          The humidity of the region

–          The availability of and cost of water

–          The cost of peak demand charges

Among these factors, the goal of improving system energy efficiencies in warmer climates has become a major focus area for equipment manufacturers. Leading system design optimization strategies typically include:

–          Adiabatic gas cooler

–          Parallel compression

–          Mechanical sub-cooling

–          Gas ejector

–          Zero superheat control of MT evaporators (annualized benefit)

–          Liquid ejector (annualized benefit)

Retailers must consider all these variables and strategies when they work with their equipment suppliers and design engineers to specify a CO2 transcritical booster system.

Adiabatic gas cooler

An adiabatic gas cooler utilizes wetted pre-cooling pads outside the condenser coils to delay a CO2 transcritical booster system from entering into transcritical mode. When the ambient temperature reaches about 72 °F, a water solenoid valve is energized, causing water to be sprayed along the top of the adiabatic pads. As the water trickles down the pads, a condenser pulls air through these wetted pads, causing moist, cooler air to hit the coils. In turn, the condenser reacts to this cooler air and drops the temperature and pressure, making the system significantly more energy-efficient by operating at lower pressures.

Parallel compression

In a CO2 transcritical booster system, parallel compression refers to the practice of adding a separate suction group that is “parallel” to the existing MT suction. Thus, instead of the bypass gas circulating from the flash tank to the MT suction as in a standard transcritical booster system, the parallel compressor suction group compresses excess flash gas and circulates it directly to the gas cooler.

This allows the parallel compressor to operate at a suction pressure of about 550 psi (the same as the flash tank), instead of the MT suction of 420 psi. The net effect of leveraging the higher suction pressure is achieving higher compressor capacity for less effort, which translates into a lower heat of compression and reduced energy consumption. Parallel compression is considered a foundational high ambient strategy with which other energy mitigation methods can be used in combination. When annualized in a typical environment, it can potentially save up to 10% in energy costs.

To learn more about the topics discussed herein, please view the companion installments in our CO2 Chats video series. For more information about Emerson’s comprehensive CO2 products and capabilities, please visit

Andre is responsible for supporting system-related innovation and leveraging Emerson’s global cold chain to drive adoption of integrated solutions in North America. He most recently led marketing efforts pertaining to Emerson’s food retail and chiller markets. Prior to that, he had managed Emerson’s global CO2 development. 

Andre has more than 35 years of industry experience in sales, marketing, training and business development of HVACR system architectures and applications with compression and component technologies. He is a certified Mechanical Engineering Technologist C.E.T. (since 1984), and is a member of AHRI, ASHRAE and RSES.







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Celebrating milestones on World Ozone Day

Entire world Ozone Day is getting celebrated on September 16 with the concept “global cooperation protecting existence on Earth”, in recognition of the 35th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

On September 16, 1987, governments adopted the Montreal Protocol to manage and reduce ozone-depleting substances, largely chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The protocol came into outcome in 1989. By 2008, it was the first and only UN environmental arrangement to be ratified by every region in the earth.

“In the confront of a triple planetary crisis – local climate modify, character decline and pollution – the Montreal Protocol is one particular of the most effective examples we have of the ability of multilateralism,” claims Meg Seki, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Surroundings Programme’s (UNEP’s) Ozone Secretariat. She notes how this results is reflected in the theme for this year’s function.

In accordance to the UNEP Ozone Secretariat, the Montreal Protocol has shielded hundreds of thousands of people from pores and skin cancer and cataracts more than the many years. It has also slowed climate transform. If ozone-depleting chemical compounds experienced not been banned, it is approximated that global temperatures would rise by an additional 2.5°C by the conclude of this century.

The HVAC&R marketplace has played a big part in phasing out the use of CFCs, as very well as HCFCs, as refrigerants. In truth, in the final fiscal yr, Australia established a new report for destroying ozone-depleting refrigerant gases and getting rid of them forever from the ecosystem.

According to the Australian Refrigeration Council (ARC), the HVAC&R field ruined more than three occasions as substantially R22, a single of the most prevalent ozone-depleting refrigerant gases, as in any of the former five several years. Much more than 120 tonnes of R22 have been recovered in 2020–21 and despatched for destruction at the Refrigerant Reclaim Australia (RRA) plasma arc facility in Melbourne – the greatest sum because it started to be reclaimed for re-use a ten years back.

By distinction, destruction fees of R22 in the past 5 years ranged from 14 to 39 tonnes.

ARC chief government officer Glenn Evans says this a testament to the efforts of the full HVAC&R market, and to the legislation and rules that underpin the licensing scheme.

“This report coincides with the 35th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer – a great accomplishment designed on prolonged yrs of dedicated energy,” he says.

“Australia enshrined the ideas of the Montreal Protocol in legislation with the Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gasoline Administration Act 1989 – 1 of the 1st countries to do so.

“The first targets to secure the ozone layer ended up the CFCs utilised in anything from aerosol cans to fridges and air conditioners, which were banned in 1996.

“After that, the RAC industry’s concentration moved on to doing away with hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) these kinds of as R22, and below we are now, nearer than at any time to that objective.”

More info about Environment Ozone Working day is accessible at the UNEP Ozone Secretariat site.

A totally free Ozone Working day webinar is staying held on Saturday, September 17. For more details, click below.

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